or counseling with a therapist, is an intentional interpersonal relationship used by trained
therapists to aid a client or patient
in problems of living. It aims to increase the individual's
sense of their own well-being.
Therapy is based on experiential relationship building, dialogue,
change and it is designed to improve the mental
health of a client or patient, or to improve group
relationships (such as in group therapy or family therapy).
may also be performed by practitioners with a number of different
qualifications, including psychiatry,
clinical psychology, counseling psychology, mental health counseling, clinical social work, marriage and family therapy, rehabilitation counseling, music
therapy, occupational therapy, psychiatric nursing, psychoanalysis
therapy can increasingly be considered as a profession in its own
right, and worldwide, this view and has set professional training
standards for a therapist. However, some European countries have
passed laws about therapy that restrict its practice to the
professions of psychology
and social work.
forms of psychotherapy use spoken communication. Some also use various
other forms of communication such as the written word, artwork,
story or music. Psychotherapy with children and their parents often
involves play, dramatization (i.e.
occurs within a structured encounter between a trained therapist
and client. Purposeful theoretically based psychotherapy began in the
19th century with psychoanalysis; since then, scores of other
approaches have been developed and continue to be created, including
anger management and cognitive behavioral therapy and dialectical
is generally used in response to a variety of specific or non-specific
manifestations of mental illness or mental health problems. Treatment
of everyday problems is more often referred to as counseling
(a distinction originally adopted by Carl
Rogers). However, the term counseling is sometimes used
interchangeably with psychotherapy.
some psychotherapeutic interventions are designed to treat the patient
using the medical model, many psychotherapeutic approaches
do not adhere to the symptom-based model of "illness/cure".
Some practitioners, such as humanistic therapists, see themselves more
in a facilitative/helper role. As sensitive and deeply personal topics
are often discussed during psychotherapy, therapists are expected, and
usually legally bound, to respect client or patient confidentiality.
The critical importance of confidentiality is enshrined in the
regulatory psychotherapeutic organizations'
codes of ethical practice.
or treatment, is the attempted remediation of a mental health problem,
usually following a diagnosis. In the medical field, it is synonymous
with the word treatment. In psychology or psychiatry, the term,
therapy, may refer specifically to psychotherapy or cognitive
psychotherapy, family therapy, counseling or cognitive behavioral
year, millions of people seek therapy or receive counseling for a vast
number of mental health or social work issues. Therapy can address a
wide range of concerns such as depression, anxiety, stress, addiction,
use of alcohol, or problems with a marriage. You can also look to
therapy for life-enhancing help in fulfilling aspirations for personal
growth or self-improvement.
Through the course of their training and practice, mental health
professionals often develop expertise in specific areas and establish
preferred modes of therapy. There are many types of therapy or
“orientations.” It may be that the nature of your particular
problem will clearly define the type of therapy that would be the best
for you and can then help you determine which therapist to consider.
For example, if you are experiencing difficulties in your
relationships with family members, a therapist who specializes in
family therapy or marital therapy would be a good choice.
Most therapists work with their clients to determine the most
effective treatment plan even when it does not include their preferred
orientation or just one specific technique. This can sometimes involve
elements of several different types of therapy, for example, a
combination of behavioral therapeutic techniques and psychodynamic
therapeutic techniques, becoming what is referred to as an “eclectic
approach” to therapy.
- Those who practice psychiatry are different than most other mental health
professionals and physicians in that they must be familiar with both
the social and psychological. The
discipline is interested in the operations of different organs and
body systems as classified by the patient's subjective experiences and
the objective of the patient. Psychiatry
exists to treat mental disorders and mental illness which are
conventionally divided into three very general categories: mental
illness, severe learning disability, and personality disorder. While the focus of psychiatry has changed little throughout
time, the diagnostic and treatment processes have evolved dramatically
and continue to do so. Since the late 20th century, the field of
psychiatry has continued to become more biological and less
conceptually isolated from the field of medicine.
– Personality is
defined as the enduring personal characteristics of individuals.
psychologist may frown on the premise, a commonly used explanation for
personality development is the psychodynamic
approach. The term psychodynamic describes any theory that emphasizes
the constant change and development of the individual. Perhaps the
best known of the theories in psychology is psychoanalysis, developed
individual's personality is an aggregate of experiences we've had
throughout our lives. There
are inherent natural, genetic, and environmental factors that
contribute to the development of our personality. According to a
process of socialization, personality also colors our values, beliefs,
and expectations ... Hereditary factors that contribute to personality
development do so as a result of interactions with the particular
social environment in which people live. There are several personality types as Myers and Briggs
illustrated in several personality tests. Other theories on personality development are: Jean Piaget
- stages of development, and personality development, and according to Freud – personality is formed through the
interaction of id, ego, and super-ego.
term disorder is often considered more value-neutral and less
stigmatizing than the terms disease or illness, and therefore is
preferred terminology in most circumstances. In mental health, the
term mental disorder is used as a way of acknowledging the complex
interaction of biological, social, and psychological factors in
psychiatric conditions. However, the term disorder is also used in
many other areas of medicine, primarily to identify physical disorders
that are not caused by infectious organisms, such as organic brain
- Depression is a serious illness that affects a person's family and
personal relationships, work or school life, sleeping and eating
habits, and general health. Its impact on functioning and
well-being has been equated to that of chronic medical conditions such
person having depression usually exhibits a very low mood, which
pervades all aspects of life, and an inability
to experience pleasure in activities that formerly were
enjoyed. Depressed people may be preoccupied with, or ruminate over, thoughts and feelings of
worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness,
hopelessness, and self-hatred. In severe cases, depressed people may
have symptoms of psychosis.
These symptoms include delusions or, less commonly, hallucinations,
usually of an unpleasant nature. Other symptoms of depression include
poor concentration and memory (especially in those with melancholic or psychotic features), withdrawal from social
situations and activities, reduced sex drive, and thoughts of death or suicide.
Insomnia is common in depression and anxiety. In the typical
pattern, a person wakes very early and is unable to get back to sleep.
or oversleeping, can also happen. Appetite often decreases, with resulting weight loss, although
increased appetite and weight gain occasionally occur. The person may report multiple physical symptoms such as
fatigue, headaches, or digestive problems; physical complaints are the
most common presenting problem in developing countries, according to
the World Health Organization's criteria for
children often display an irritable rather than a depressed mood, and
show varying symptoms depending on age and situation. Most exhibit a loss of interest in school and a decline in
academic performance. They may be described as clingy, demanding,
dependent, or insecure. Diagnosis
may be delayed or missed when symptoms are interpreted as normal
moodiness. Depression may
also coincide with attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD), complicating the diagnosis and treatment
Older depressed persons may have cognitive
symptoms of recent onset, such as forgetfulness, and a more noticeable
slowing of movements. Depression
often coexists with physical disorders common among the elderly, such
as stroke, other cardiovascular diseases, Parkinson's disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
- Alcoholism, also known as alcohol dependence, is a disabling
addiction characterized by the compulsive and uncontrolled abuse of
alcohol, despite adverse effects upon the drinker's health and
negative social consequences upon his or her life. Similar to other
drug addictions, or substance abuse, alcoholism is medically defined
as a treatable disease. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, alcohol
dependence was called dipsomania, before the term alcoholism replaced
biological mechanisms underpinning alcoholism are uncertain, however,
risk factors include social environment, stress, mental
health, genetic predisposition, age, ethnic group, and sex. Long-term alcohol abuse produces physiological changes in the
brain, such as tolerance and physical dependence, which result in
alcohol withdrawal syndrome upon discontinuation of alcohol. Such
brain chemistry changes maintain the alcoholic’s compulsive
inability to stop drinking. Alcohol
damages almost every organ in the body, including the brain; because
of the cumulative toxic effects of chronic alcohol abuse, the
alcoholic risks suffering a range of medical and psychiatric
disorders. Alcoholism has profound social consequences for
alcoholics and the people in their lives.
Alcohol abuse is the cyclic presence of tolerance, withdrawal, and
excessive alcohol use; the drinker’s inability to control such
compulsive drinking, despite awareness of its harm to his or her
health, indicate that the person might be an alcoholic.
Questionnaire-based screening is a method of detecting harmful
drinking patterns, including alcoholism. Detox
is conducted to withdraw the alcoholic person from drinking alcohol,
usually with cross-tolerance drugs, e.g. benzodiazepines to manage
withdrawal symptoms. Post-medical
care, such as group therapy, or self-help groups, usually is required
to maintain alcoholic abstention. Often, alcoholics also
are addicted to other drugs, most often heroin, cocaine, or marijuana,
which might require additional medical treatment. Substance abuse is widespread and people can manage to abuse
almost any drug. Following
detox a person will enter rehab usually in a treatment center or drug